Legal Resources/1st Amendment

Kentucky Libel Laws


Kentucky Laws Mentioning Libel -- current through end of 2006 Kentucky General Assembly

Ky Const § 8 Freedom of speech and of the press

Printing presses shall be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the General Assembly or any branch of government, and no law shall ever be made to restrain the right thereof. Every person may freely and fully speak, write and print on any subject, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

Ky Const § 9 Truth may be given in evidence in prosecution for publishing matters proper for public information; jury to try law and facts in libel prosecutions

In prosecutions for the publication of papers investigating the official conduct of officers or men in a public capacity, or where the matter published is proper for public information, the truth thereof may be given in evidence; and in all indictments for libel the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court, as in other cases

452.610 Publishing libelous matter in newspaper

Prosecutions against persons publishing a newspaper for any libelous matter contained therein may be in the county where the same is printed and issued, or in the county where the party complaining resides.

411.045 Defenses allowed in action for libel or slander

In the actions for libel or slander, the defendant may state the truth of the alleged libel or slander, and any mitigating circumstances; and, whether he prove the justification or not, he may prove the mitigating circumstances to reduce the amount of damages.

411.060 Action for libel; privileged communications

The publication of a fair and impartial report of any proceeding before any state or city legislative or executive body, board or officer, or the whole or a fair synopsis of any bill, report, resolution, bulletin, notice, petition, or other document presented, filed, or used in any proceeding before any state or city legislative or executive body, board or officer, shall be privileged, unless it is proved that the publication was maliciously made. The publication of a fair and impartial report or the whole or a synopsis of any indictment, warrant, affidavit, pleading or other document in any criminal or civil action in any court of competent jurisdiction shall be privileged, unless it is proved that it was published maliciously, or that the defendant after request by the plaintiff has failed to publish a reasonable explanation or contradiction thereof, giving the explanation or contradiction the same prominence and space as the original publication, or that the publisher has refused after request by the plaintiff to publish the subsequent determination of the proceeding. This section shall not authorize the publication of any indecent matter.

411.051 Libel actions against newspaper, magazine, or periodical; demand for and publication of correction; effect

(1) In any action for damages for the publication of a defamatory statement in a newspaper, magazine, or periodical, the defendant shall be liable for actual damages sustained by plaintiff. The defendant may plead the publication of a correction in mitigation of damages. Punitive damages may be recovered only if the plaintiff shall allege and prove publication with legal malice and that the newspaper, magazine, or periodical failed to make conspicuous and timely publication of a correction after receiving a sufficient demand for correction.

(2) A "sufficient demand for correction" is a demand for correction which is in writing; which is signed by the plaintiff or his duly-authorized attorney or agent; which specifies the statement or statements claimed to be false and defamatory, states wherein they are false, and sets forth the facts; and which is delivered to the defendant prior to the commencement of the action.

(3) A "correction" is either:

(a) The publication of an acknowledgment that the statement or statements specified as false and defamatory in the plaintiff's demand for correction are erroneous; or

(b) The publication, in a fair and impartial manner as a matter of law, of the plaintiff's statement of the facts (as set forth in his demand for correction) or a fair summary thereof, exclusive of any portions thereof which are defamatory of another, obscene, or otherwise improper for publication. If the demand for correction has specified two (2) or more statements as false and defamatory, the correction may deal with some of such statements pursuant to (a) above and with other of such statements pursuant to (b) above.

(4) A "conspicuous publication" in a newspaper is a publication which is printed in substantially as conspicuous a manner as the statement or statements specified as false and defamatory in the demand for correction.

(5) A "timely publication" in a daily newspaper is a publication within ten (10) business days after the day on which a sufficient demand for correction is received by the defendant. A "timely publication" in a newspaper, magazine, or periodical other than a daily newspaper is a publication in or prior to the next regular issue which is published not less than ten (10) business days after the day on which a sufficient demand for correction is received by the defendant.

413.140 Actions to be brought within one year

(1) The following actions shall be commenced within one (1) year after the cause of action accrued:

(a) An action for an injury to the person of the plaintiff, or of her husband, his wife, child, ward, apprentice, or servant;

(b) An action for injuries to persons, cattle, or other livestock by railroads or other corporations, with the exception of hospitals licensed pursuant to KRS Chapter 216;

(c) An action for malicious prosecution, conspiracy, arrest, seduction, criminal conversation, or breach of promise of marriage;

(d) An action for libel or slander;

(e) An action against a physician, surgeon, dentist, or hospital licensed pursuant to KRS Chapter 216, for negligence or malpractice;

(f) A civil action, arising out of any act or omission in rendering, or failing to render, professional services for others, whether brought in tort or contract, against a real estate appraiser holding a certificate or license issued under KRS Chapter 324A;

(g) An action for the escape of a prisoner, arrested or imprisoned on civil process;

(h) An action for the recovery of usury paid for the loan or forbearance of money or other thing, against the loaner or forbearer or assignee of either;

(i) An action for the recovery of stolen property, by the owner thereof against any person having the same in his possession;

(j) An action for the recovery of damages or the value of stolen property, against the thief or any accessory; and

(k) An action arising out of a detention facility disciplinary proceeding, whether based upon state or federal law.

(2) In respect to the action referred to in paragraph (e) of subsection (1) of this section, the cause of action shall be deemed to accrue at the time the injury is first discovered or in the exercise of reasonable care should have been discovered; provided that such action shall be commenced within five (5) years from the date on which the alleged negligent act or omission is said to have occurred.

(3) In respect to the action referred to in paragraph (f) of subsection (1) of this section, the cause of action shall be deemed to accrue within one (1) year from the date of the occurrence or from the date when the cause of action was, or reasonably should have been, discovered by the party injured.

(4) In respect to the action referred to in paragraph (h) of subsection (1) of this section, the cause of action shall be deemed to accrue at the time of payment. This limitation shall apply to all payments made on all demands, whether evidenced by writing or existing only in parol.

(5) In respect to the action referred to in paragraph (i) of subsection (1) of this section, the cause of action shall be deemed to accrue at the time the property is found by its owner.

(6) In respect to the action referred to in paragraph (j) of subsection (1) of this section, the cause of action shall be deemed to accrue at the time of discovery of the liability.

(7) In respect to the action referred to in paragraph (k) of subsection (1) of this section, the cause of action shall be deemed to accrue on the date an appeal of the disciplinary proceeding is decided by the institutional warden.

432.280 Court may bring criminal action for libel or slander; punish resistance to judicial order

Nothing in KRS 432.230 to 432.270 shall prevent any court or judge from proceeding against any person writing or publishing a libel or slanderous words concerning such court or judge in relation to his judicial conduct in court by indictment, nor prevent any court from punishing any person guilty of a contempt in resisting or disobeying any judicial order or process issued by or under the authority of such court.

411.140 What action shall survive

No right of action for personal injury or for injury to real or personal property shall cease or die with the person injuring or injured, except actions for slander, libel, criminal conversation, and so much of the action for malicious prosecution as is intended to recover for the personal injury. For any other injury an action may be brought or revived by the personal representative, or against the personal representative, heir or devisee, in the same manner as causes of action founded on contract.

205.175 Confidential treatment of information and records; persons to whom furnished

(1) All letters, reports, communications, and other matters, written or oral, to the cabinet or any of its agents, representatives, or employees, or to any board or official functioning under this chapter which have been written, sent, or made in connection with the requirements and administration of the cabinet shall be absolutely privileged and shall not be the subject matter or basis for any suit for slander or libel in any court, but no person testifying before the secretary or his duly authorized representative shall be exempt from punishment for perjury.

(2) Information received or transmitted shall not be published or be open for public inspection, including instances in which the agency determines reasonable cause to believe evidence of domestic violence or child abuse and the disclosure of the information could be harmful to the custodial parent or the child of the parent, except that necessary information and records may be furnished to:

(a) Public employees in the performance of their duties in connection with the administration of the public assistance or child support enforcement program pursuant to Part D of Title IV of the Social Security Act [FN1];

(b) All law enforcement agencies including county attorneys, Commonwealth's attorneys, District and Circuit Judges and grand juries in discovering and prosecuting cases involving fraud;

(c) Duly elected members of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky and the Congress of the United States in connection with their duties as members of such legislative bodies, but such information shall be limited to cases of individual constituents of the legislator, who have requested information regarding their application or grant, as specified in the inquiry by such legislator;

(d) Any interested party at a hearing before the secretary or his duly authorized representative to the extent necessary for the proper presentation of his case; provided, that any names or information obtained through access to such records shall not be used for any commercial or political purposes; and

(e) Any bank, savings and loan association, credit union, or other financial institution to the extent necessary to ascertain or confirm information submitted by the applicant or recipient and used to make eligibility or benefit determinations.

(3) Information regarding a public assistance applicant or recipient may also be released, in the discretion of the secretary or those he may designate, to such individuals or agencies as meet the requirements of regulations promulgated by the secretary and who are supplying or cooperating in securing services, employment, or training for the applicant or recipient of public assistance.

(4) The unauthorized use by any employee of the cabinet of information obtained pursuant to KRS 205.835 is prohibited.

452.460 Where action for injury to person, property or character must be brought

(1) Every other action for an injury to the person or property of the plaintiff, and every action for an injury to the character of the plaintiff, against a defendant residing in this state, must be brought in the county in which the defendant resides, or in which the injury is done. Provided, that in actions for libel the action shall be brought in the county in which the plaintiff resides or in the county in which the newspaper or publication is printed or published, or in the county in which the transaction or act or declaration to which the publication relates is stated, or purported to have been done or taken place.

(2) If an injury occurs on a river or stream dividing two (2) or more counties, any county bounding the river at the point the injury occurred may be considered the county in which the injury is done for purposes of bringing the action.

199.430 Witnesses and evidence; confidential treatment of information and records

(1) In the discharge of the duties imposed by KRS 199.410 to 199.670 the secretary or his duly authorized representative may administer oaths and affirmations, take depositions, certify official acts, and issue subpoenas to compel the attendance of witnesses and production of books, papers, correspondence, memoranda and other records considered necessary and relevant as evidence in connection with the administration of the cabinet. Such subpoena shall be served in the same manner as a subpoena issued out of a circuit court. Witnesses subpoenaed shall be allowed mileage allowance according to KRS 421.015 for each day their attendance is actually required at a hearing.

(2) No person shall be excused from attending and testifying or from producing books, papers, correspondence, memoranda or other records in response to such subpoena on the grounds that the evidence required of him may tend to incriminate him or subject him to a penalty for forfeiture. No person shall be prosecuted or subjected to any suit, penalty, or forfeiture on account of any transaction, matter, or thing concerning which he or his agent or worker is compelled, after having claimed privilege against self-incrimination, to give evidence, except that such witness so testifying shall not be exempt from punishment for perjury.

(3) All letters, reports, communications, and other matters, written or oral, to the cabinet or any of its agents, representatives, or employees, or to any board or official functioning under KRS 199.410 to 199.670, which have been written, sent, or made in connection with the requirements and administration of the cabinet shall be absolutely privileged and shall not be the subject matter or basis for any suit for slander or libel in any court, but no person testifying before the secretary or his duly authorized representative shall be exempt from punishment for perjury. Information obtained shall not be published or be open for public inspection, except to public employees in the performance of their duties, but any interested party at a hearing before the secretary or his duly authorized representative shall be supplied with information from such records to the extent necessary for the proper presentation of his case.

24A.230 Jurisdiction; authority

(1) The small claims division shall have jurisdiction, concurrent with that of the District Court, in all civil actions, other than libel, slander, alienation of affections, malicious prosecution and abuse of process actions, when the amount of money or damages or the value of the personal property claimed does not exceed one thousand five hundred dollars ($1,500) exclusive of interest and costs.

(2) The division may also be used in civil matters when the plaintiff seeks to disaffirm, avoid, or rescind a contract or agreement for the purchase of goods or services not in excess of one thousand five hundred dollars ($1,500) exclusive of interest and costs.

(3) The division shall have authority to grant appropriate relief, except no prejudgment actions for attachment, garnishment, replevin or other provisional remedy may be filed in the division.

304.39-087 Definition; submission of vehicle identification numbers and names of policyholders to Department of Vehicle Regulation; limitation of liability

(1) As used in this section, unless the context requires otherwise, "personal motor vehicle" means:

(a) A private passenger motor vehicle that is not used as a public or livery conveyance for passengers, nor rented to others; and

(b) Any other four-wheel motor vehicle that weighs six thousand (6,000) pounds or less which is not used in the occupation, profession, or business of the insured.

(2) Beginning January 1, 2006, every insurance company that writes liability insurance on personal motor vehicles in Kentucky shall, between the first and fifteenth day of each month, send to the Department of Vehicle Regulation a list of the vehicle identification numbers (VINs) of each personal motor vehicle covered by liability insurance issued by the insurer as of the last day of the preceding month and the name of each personal motor vehicle insurance policyholder. The information shall be submitted either electronically or by paper copy at the option of the Department of Vehicle Regulation.

(3) In the absence of malice, fraud, or gross negligence, any insurer and any authorized employee of an insurer shall not be subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort, and no civil cause of action of any nature shall arise against the insurer or authorized employee, for submission of the information required by subsection (2) of this section, including submission of inaccurate or incomplete information.

341.190 Records and reports; confidential treatment

(1) Each employing unit shall keep true and accurate work records of all workers employed by it, of the wages paid by it to each worker, and such other information as the secretary of the Education Cabinet considers necessary for the proper administration of this chapter. The records shall be open for inspection and subject to being copied by the secretary or his or her authorized representatives at any reasonable time and as often as necessary.

(2) The secretary may require any employing unit to furnish to the cabinet at its central office from time to time information concerning the total amounts of wages paid, total number of persons employed, an individual record of each worker employed, an individual record of each worker whose employment has been terminated or who has been laid off, an individual wage and hour record of each worker employed part time entitled to benefits, and other related matters, including hours worked, which the secretary considers necessary to the effective administration of this chapter.

(3) Information obtained from an employing unit or individual and other records made by the cabinet in the administration of this chapter are confidential and shall not be published or be open for public inspection, except as provided below:

(a) Information may be made available to public employees in the performance of their duties, but the agency receiving the information shall assure the confidentiality, as provided for in this section, of all information so released;

(b) A claimant or employing unit or his legal representative shall be provided, upon request, information or records maintained by the cabinet in the administration of his claim, his reserve account, his reimbursing employer account, or any proceeding under this chapter to which he is a party;

(c) Statistical information derived from information and records obtained or made by the cabinet may be published, if it in no way reveals the identity of any claimant or employing unit; and

(d) Nothing in this section shall preclude the secretary or any employee of the cabinet from testifying in any proceeding under this chapter or in any court, or from introducing as evidence information or records obtained or made by the cabinet in an action for violation of state or federal law to which the cabinet is a party or upon order of the court.

(4) No information or records held confidential under subsection (3) of this section shall be the subject matter or basis for any suit for slander or libel in any court, but no employer or employee, or his representative, testifying before the commission, the secretary, or any duly authorized representative thereof, shall be exempt from punishment for perjury.

304.15-717 Circumstances under which viatical settlement transactions are unlawful; required statement regarding false information; furnishing information regarding fraudulent viatical acts

(1) It is unlawful for any person:

(a) To knowingly or intentionally enter into a viatical settlement contract when the subject life insurance policy was obtained by means of a false, deceptive, or misleading application for the life insurance policy;

(b) To knowingly or intentionally interfere with the enforcement of the provisions of this subtitle or investigations of suspected or actual violations of this subtitle;

(c) To knowingly or intentionally permit a person convicted of a felony involving dishonesty or breach of trust to participate in the business of viatical settlements as defined in KRS 304.15- 020(4);

(d) To commit a fraudulent viatical settlement act;

(e) To misrepresent that the viatical settlement provider, viatical settlement broker, other licensee, or any other person has been guaranteed, sponsored, recommended, or approved by the state, or by any local, state, or federal agency or officer thereof;

(f) To act as a viatical settlement broker if the person is acting as a viatical settlement provider in the same viatical settlement contract; and

(g) For any person to pay any compensation or provide anything of value to an insured's physician, attorney, accountant, or any other person who provides medical, legal, or financial advice to the insured as a finder's or referral fee. This subsection shall not prohibit a statement that the person is licensed, if that statement is true and the effect of the statement is not misrepresented.

(2) A viatical settlement contract and an application for a viatical settlement contract, regardless of the form of transmission, shall contain the following statement or a substantially similar statement:<BR>"Any person who knowingly presents false information in an application for insurance or viatical settlement contract is guilty of a crime and upon conviction may be subject to fines or confinement in prison, or both." The lack of a statement required by this section does not constitute a defense in any prosecution for a fraudulent viatical settlement act.

(3) (a) A person engaged in the business of viatical settlements who has knowledge or a reasonable belief that a fraudulent viatical settlement act is being, will be, or has been committed shall provide the information required to the executive director, in a manner prescribed by the executive director.

(b) Any person who has knowledge or a reasonable belief that a fraudulent viatical settlement act is being, will be, or has been committed may provide the information required to the executive director, in a manner prescribed by the executive director in administrative regulations.

(4) (a) Civil liability may not be imposed on and a cause of action may not arise from a person's furnishing information concerning suspected, anticipated, or completed fraudulent viatical settlement acts, or suspected or completed fraudulent insurance acts, if the information is provided to or received from:

1. The executive director or the executive director's employees, agents, or representatives;

2. Federal, state, or local law enforcement or regulatory officials, or their employees, agents, or representatives;

3. A person involved in the prevention and detection of fraudulent viatical settlement acts or that person's agents, employees, or representatives;

4. The National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC), the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD), the North American Securities Administrators Association (NASAA), or their employees, agents, or representatives, or any other regulatory body overseeing life insurance or viatical settlement contracts; or

5. The insurer that issued the policy covering the life of the insured.

(b) This subsection shall not apply to a statement made with actual malice. In an action brought against a person for filing a report or furnishing other information concerning a fraudulent viatical settlement act or a fraudulent insurance act, the party bringing the action shall plead specifically any allegation that this subsection shall not apply because the person filing the report or furnishing the information did so with actual malice.

(c) A person who furnishes information concerning fraudulent viatical settlement acts and who is a party in a civil cause of action for libel, slander, or another relevant tort arising out of activities in carrying out the provisions of this chapter shall be entitled to an award of attorney's fees and court costs if he is the prevailing party in the suit and the party bringing the action was not substantially justified in filing the cause of action. For purposes of this paragraph, a proceeding is "substantially justified" if a person had a reasonable basis in law or fact at the time the cause of action was initiated.

(d) This subsection shall not abrogate or modify common law or statutory privileges or immunities enjoyed by a person.

(e) This subsection shall not apply to a person who furnishes information concerning his own suspected, anticipated, or completed fraudulent viatical settlement acts or suspected, anticipated, or completed fraudulent insurance acts.

(5) The documents and evidence provided pursuant to subsection (4) of this section or obtained by the executive director in an investigation of suspected or actual fraudulent viatical settlement acts shall be privileged and confidential and shall not be a public record and shall not be subject to discovery or subpoena in a civil or criminal action, except that:

(a) This subsection shall not prohibit release by the executive director of documents and evidence obtained in an investigation of suspected or actual fraudulent viatical settlement acts:

1. In administrative or judicial proceedings to enforce laws administered by the executive director;

2. To federal, state, or local law enforcement or regulatory agencies, to an organization established for the purpose of detecting and preventing fraudulent viatical settlement acts, or to the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC); or

3. At the discretion of the executive director, to a person in the business of viatical settlements that is aggrieved by a fraudulent viatical settlement act.

(b) The release of documents and evidence provided by paragraph (a) of this subsection shall not abrogate or modify the privilege granted by this subsection.

(6) This section shall not:

(a) Preempt the authority or relieve the duty of other law enforcement or regulatory agencies to investigate, examine, and prosecute suspected violations of law;

(b) Prevent or prohibit a person from voluntarily disclosing information concerning fraudulent viatical settlement acts to a law enforcement or regulatory agency other than the Office of Insurance; or

(c) Limit the powers granted elsewhere by the laws of this state to the executive director or an insurance fraud unit to investigate and examine possible violations of law and to take appropriate action against wrongdoers.

(7) A viatical settlement provider shall adopt antifraud initiatives reasonably calculated to detect, prosecute, and prevent fraudulent viatical settlement acts. The executive director may order or, if a licensee requests, may grant modifications of the required initiatives listed in this subsection as necessary to ensure an effective antifraud program. The modifications may be more or less restrictive than the required initiatives so long as the modifications reasonably may be expected to accomplish the purpose of this section. Antifraud initiatives shall include the following:

(a) Fraud investigators, who may be viatical settlement providers or employees or independent contractors of those viatical settlement providers; and

(b) An antifraud plan submitted to the executive director that shall include but is not limited to the following:

1. The procedures for detecting and investigating possible fraudulent viatical settlement acts and procedures for resolving material inconsistencies between medical records and insurance applications;

2. The procedures for reporting possible fraudulent viatical settlement acts to the executive director;

3. The plan for antifraud education and training of underwriters and other personnel; and

4. A chart outlining the organizational arrangement of the antifraud personnel who are responsible for the investigation and reporting of possible fraudulent viatical settlement acts and investigating unresolved material inconsistencies between medical records and insurance applications.

411.061 Actions against a radio or television broadcasting station for damages for publication of a defamatory statement; definitions

(1) In any action against a radio or television broadcasting station for damages for the publication of a defamatory statement by a visual or sound radio broadcast, the plaintiff shall recover no more than special damages unless he shall allege and prove that he made a sufficient demand for correction and that the radio or television broadcasting station failed to make conspicuous and timely publication of said correction.

(2) A "sufficient demand for correction" is a demand for correction which is in writing; which is signed by the plaintiff or his duly authorized attorney or agent; which specifies the statement or statements claimed to be false and defamatory, states wherein they are false, and sets forth the true facts; and which is delivered to the defendant prior to the commencement of the action.

(3) A "correction" is either (a) the publication of an acknowledgment that the statement or statements specified as false and defamatory in the plaintiff's demand for correction are erroneous, or (b) the publication of the plaintiff's statement of the true facts (as set forth in his demand for correction) or a fair summary thereof, exclusive of any portions thereof which are defamatory of another, obscene, or otherwise improper for publication. If the demand for correction has specified two or more statements as false and defamatory, the correction may deal with some of such statements pursuant to (a) above and with other of such statements pursuant to (b) above.

(4) A "conspicuous publication" in a visual or sound radio broadcast is a publication which is broadcast at substantially the same time of day, and with the same sending power, as the statement or statements specified as false and defamatory in the demand for correction. A publication in a particular manner which is agreeable to the plaintiff shall in any event be deemed "conspicuous."

(5) A "timely publication" in a visual or sound radio broadcast is a publication within one business day after the day on which a sufficient demand for correction is received by the defendant. A "business day" is any day other than a Sunday or legal holiday. A publication on a particular day which is agreeable to the plaintiff shall in any event be deemed "timely."

(6) "Special damages" are pecuniary damages which the plaintiff alleges and proves that he has suffered in respect to his property, business, trade, profession, or occupation (including such amounts of money as the plaintiff alleges and proves he has expended as a proximate result of the alleged defamation), and no other.

411.062 Defense to actions for damages for publication of a defamatory statement against a radio or television broadcasting station

If in any action for damages for the publication of a defamatory statement on a visual or sound radio broadcast, the defendant proves that said defamatory statement has been uttered by one other than the owner, licensee, or operator of the broadcasting station or one acting as the agent or employee of said owner, licensee or operator, the action shall be dismissed unless the plaintiff shall allege and prove that such owner, licensee, operator, agency or employee has failed to exercise due care to prevent the publication of said statement in said broadcast; provided, however, that bona fide compliance with any federal law or the regulation of any federal regulatory agency shall be construed as the exercise of due care; and provided, further, that in no event shall the owner, operator or licensee of a radio or television broadcasting station, or one acting as the agent or employee of such owner, operator or licensee, be held liable for the utterance of a defamatory statement in a visual or sound radio broadcast over the facilities of such station by any person speaking as a legally qualified candidate for public office, or on behalf of any such candidate.

286.5-810 Injurious statements about associations; penalty

Whoever willfully and knowingly makes, issues, circulates, transmits or causes or knowingly permits to be made, issued, circulated or transmitted, any statement of rumor, written, printed reproduced in any manner, or by word of mouth, which is untrue in fact and is directly or by inference false, malicious in that it is calculated to injure reputation or business, or derogatory to the reputation, financial condition or standing of any association, federal savings and loan association, federal home loan bank, the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, or the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) or imprisoned for not more than one (1) year, or both.

304.47-060 Immunity of informant and of office employees

(1) In the absence of malice, fraud, or gross negligence, a person shall not be subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort by virtue of filing reports or furnishing other information required by this chapter or requested by the division or its authorized representative. No civil cause of action of any nature shall arise against the person:

(a) For any information relating to suspected fraudulent insurance acts furnished to or received from law enforcement officials, their agents, or employees;

(b) For any information relating to suspected fraudulent insurance acts furnished to or received from other persons subject to the provisions of this subtitle, including those designated by KRS 304.47-080;

(c) For any information furnished to or received from the Office of Workers' Claims, its agents, or employees; or

(d) For any information furnished in reports to the executive director or the National Association of Insurance Commissioners.

(2) The executive director or any employee or agent of the Office of Insurance shall not be subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort. No civil cause of action shall exist against these persons by virtue of the execution of official activities or duties of the executive director or the division or by virtue of the publication of any report or bulletin related to the official activities or duties of the executive director.

(3) This subtitle shall not abrogate or modify any common law or statutory privilege or immunity enjoyed by any person.

286.8-280 Limitation of liability

(1) In the absence of malice, fraud, or negligence, a person shall not be subject to civil liability for libel, slander, or any other relevant tort by virtue of filing reports or furnishing other information required by this subtitle or requested by the executive director.

(2) This section shall not abrogate or modify any common law or statutory privileges or immunity enjoyed by any person.

421.100 Newspaper, radio or television broadcasting station personnel need not disclose source of information

No person shall be compelled to disclose in any legal proceeding or trial before any court, or before any grand or petit jury, or before the presiding officer of any tribunal, or his agent or agents, or before the General Assembly, or any committee thereof, or before any city or county legislative body, or any committee thereof, or elsewhere, the source of any information procured or obtained by him, and published in a newspaper or by a radio or television broadcasting station by which he is engaged or employed, or with which he is connected.